Wings Always Over Africa: An Ornithological Letter
This article written by Ernest Hemingway was originally published in Esquire Magazine in 1936. He called it An Ornithological Letter because it centered on attacks by birds in Africa upon wounded and dying people in Ethiopia.
The real story was directed at Mussolini, who invaded Ethiopia in 1935.
It is easy to see from this article how Hemingway’s attitude toward war and dictators was developing. About Il Duce, he says he is “not allowing the citizens of his corporate state to see the eggs broken in the making of his imperial omelet.” Hemingway does not blame the Italian people. He concludes his article with these words: “And me, I wish the foot soldiers luck; but I wish they could learn who is their enemy – and why.”